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Forty-Sixth Alabama
Infantry Regiment

The Forty-sixth was organized at Loachapoka, in the spring of 1862.  Shortly after, it was sent to east Tennessee, and had several casualties in the fight at Tazewell.  The regiment was in the weary march into Kentucky, in Stevenson's division, but did no fighting.  When the army returned to Tennessee, the Forty-sixth was placed in a brigade with the Twentieth, Twenty-third, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Alabama, under Gen. Tracy.  In December, with all of Stevenson's division, the regiment was sent to Mississippi.  In the battle of Port Gibson, where its brigadier fell, the regiment suffered severely.  A few days later it was engaged at Baker's Creek, where its casualties were numerous, and where half the regiment was captured, including the field officers.  The remainder were besieged in Vicksburg, suffering severely, and were captured with the fortress.  Reorganized at Demopolis, with Gen. Pettus in command of the brigade, the Forty-sixth rejoined the Army of Tennessee.  It lost considerably at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, and made its winter quarters at Dalton.  At Crow's Valley it was engaged, with several casualties.  In the almost constant fighting from Dalton to Atlanta, the ranks of the Forty-sixth were thinned and at Jonesboro its list of casualties was large.  Marching with Hood into Tennessee, it was one of the three regiments that made the brilliant fight at Columbia, where its loss was considerable.  The Forty-sixth lost several killed and wounded at Nashville, and quite a number captured.  It was the rear guard on the retreat, and the brigade was complimented by Gen. Hood in special orders for its services there.  Transferred to North Carolina, the Forty-sixth was engaged at Kinston and Bentonville, with severe loss in the latter.  Consolidated with the Twenty-third Alabama, with J. B. Bibb of Montgomery as colonel, (Col. Woods was transferred to the Nineteenth Alabama,) Osceola Kyle as lieutenant colonel, and J. T. Hester of Montgomery as major, the Forty-sixth was surrendered at Salisbury by Capt. Brewer, who had commanded it for two years.


Field and Staff

Colonels -- Mike L. Woods of Montgomery; captured at Baker's Creek.

Lieut. Colonels -- Osceola Kyle of Coosa; captured at Baker's Creek.

Majors -- James M. Handley of Randolph; captured at Baker's Creek.

Adjutants -- William S. Turner of Montgomery; resigned. Thomas Riggs of Dallas; killed at Baker's Creek. Lieut. House of Coosa, (acting,) killed at Vicksburg. A. J. Brooks of Coosa; wounded at Kennesa; Lient. George McFarland, (acting,) killed at Jonesboro.


Captains, and Counties from Which the Companies Came.

Coosa -- George E. Brewer; captured at Vicksburg.

Coosa -- J. R. Cross; captured at Vicksburg.

Macon -- John F. Baggett; resigned. John F. Spinks; killed on Hood's retreat.

Macon -- C. L. Croft; resigned.

Montgomery -- Jas. W. Powell; captured at Baker's Creek.

Pike -- J. C. McGuire; resigned. ... McCaskill; killed at Baker's Creek.

Randolph -- Leonidas Stephens; died in the service. John C. Wright.

Randolph -- C. A. Allen; resigned. Wm. J. Samford.

Henry -- ....Wilson; resigned. L. L. Croft.


A Brief Synopsis of Engagements of the 46th Alabama Infantry


Port Gibson

Other Names: Thompson's Hill

Location: Claiborne County

Campaign: Grant's Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 1, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Bowen [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (comprising two corps) [US]; Confederate forces in area (one reinforced division: four brigades) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,648 total (US 861; CS 787)

Description: Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant launched his march on Vicksburg in the Spring of 1863, starting his army south, from Milliken's Bend, on the west side of the Mississippi River. He intended to cross the river at Grand Gulf, but the Union fleet was unable to silence the Confederate big guns there. Grant then marched farther south and crossed at Bruinsburg on April 30. Union forces came ashore, secured the landing area and, by late afternoon, began marching inland. Advancing on the Rodney Road towards Port Gibson, Grant's force ran into Rebel outposts after midnight and skirmished with them for around three hours. After 3:00 am, the fighting stopped. Union forces advanced on the Rodney Road and a plantation road at dawn. At 5:30 am, the Confederates engaged the Union advance and the battle ensued. Federals forced the Rebels to fall back. The Confederates established new defensive positions at different times during the day but they could not stop the Union onslaught and left the field in the early evening. This defeat demonstrated that the Confederates were unable to defend the Mississippi River line and the Federals had secured their beachhead. The way to Vicksburg was open.

Result(s): Union victory


Champion Hill

Other Names: Bakers Creek

Location: Hinds County

Campaign: Grant's Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (three corps) [US]; Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,757 total (US 2,457; CS 4,300)

Description: Following the Union occupation of Jackson, Mississippi, both Confederate and Federal forces made plans for future operations. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston retreated, with most of his army, up the Canton Road, but he ordered Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, commanding about 23,000 men, to leave Edwards Station and attack the Federals at Clinton. Pemberton and his generals felt that Johnston's plan was dangerous and decided instead to attack the Union supply trains moving from Grand Gulf to Raymond. On May 16, though, Pemberton received another order from Johnston repeating his former directions. Pemberton had already started after the supply trains and was on the Raymond-Edwards Road with his rear at the crossroads one-third mile south of the crest of Champion Hill. Thus, when he ordered a countermarch, his rear, including his many supply wagons, became the advance of his force. On May 16, 1863, about 7:00 am, the Union forces engaged the Confederates and the Battle of Champion Hill began. Pemberton's force drew up into a defensive line along a crest of a ridge overlooking Jackson Creek. Pemberton was unaware that one Union column was moving along the Jackson Road against his unprotected left flank. For protection, Pemberton posted Brig. Gen. Stephen D. Lee's men atop Champion Hill where they could watch for the reported Union column moving to the crossroads. Lee spotted the Union troops and they soon saw him. If this force was not stopped, it would cut the Rebels off from their Vicksburg base. Pemberton received warning of the Union movement and sent troops to his left flank. Union forces at the Champion House moved into action and emplaced artillery to begin firing. When Grant arrived at Champion Hill, around 10:00 am, he ordered the attack to begin. By 11:30 am, Union forces had reached the Confederate main line and about 1:00 pm, they took the crest while the Rebels retired in disorder. The Federals swept forward, capturing the crossroads and closing the Jackson Road escape route. One of Pemberton's divisions (Bowen's) then counterattacked, pushing the Federals back beyond the Champion Hill crest before their surge came to a halt. Grant then counterattacked, committing forces that had just arrived from Clinton by way of Bolton. Pemberton's men could not stand up to this assault, so he ordered his men from the field to the one escape route still open: the Raymond Road crossing of Bakers Creek. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghman's brigade formed the rearguard, and they held at all costs, including the loss of Tilghman. In the late afternoon, Union troops seized the Bakers Creek Bridge, and by midnight, they occupied Edwards. The Confederates were in full retreat towards Vicksburg. If the Union forces caught these Rebels, they would destroy them.

Result(s): Union victory


Vicksburg

Other Names: None

Location: Warren County

Campaign: Grant's Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 18-July 4, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Army of Vicksburg [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 19,233 total (US 10,142; CS 9,091)

Description: In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton's army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.

Result(s): Union victory


Chattanooga

Other Names: None

Location: Hamilton County and City of Chattanooga

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): August 21, 1863

Principal Commanders: Col. John T. Wilder [US]; D.H. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: Wilder's Brigade [US]; Hill's Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: On August 16, 1863, Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, commander of the Army of the Cumberland, launched a campaign to take Chattanooga. Col. John T. Wilder's brigade of the Union 4th Division, XIV Army Corps marched to a location northeast of Chattanooga where the Confederates could see them, reinforcing Gen. Braxton Bragg's expectations of a Union attack on the town from that direction. On August 21, Wilder reached the Tennessee River opposite Chattanooga and ordered the 18th Indiana Light Artillery to begin shelling the town. The shells caught many soldiers and civilians in town in church observing a day of prayer and fasting. The bombardment sank two steamers docked at the landing and created a great deal of consternation amongst the Confederates. Continued periodically over the next two weeks, the shelling helped keep Bragg's attention to the northeast while the bulk of Rosecrans's army crossed the Tennessee River well west and south of Chattanooga. When Bragg learned on September 8 that the Union army was in force southwest of the city, he abandoned Chattanooga.

Result(s): Successful Union demonstration


Atlanta

Other Names: None

Location: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499)

Description: Following the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson's Army of the Tennessee. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta' s outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee with his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the unprotected Union left and rear, east of the city. Wheeler's cavalry was to operate farther out on Sherman's supply line, and Gen. Frank Cheatham's corps were to attack the Union front. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reserves—Grenville Dodge's XVI Army Corps—to that location. Two of Hood's divisions ran into this reserve force and were repulsed. The Rebel attack stalled on the Union rear but began to roll up the left flank. Around the same time, a Confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to observe the fighting. Determined attacks continued, but the Union forces held. About 4:00 pm, Cheatham's corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House, but Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan' s XV Army Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union troops held, and Hood suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Union victory


Kinston

Other Names: None

Location: Lenoir County

Campaign: Goldsborough Expedition (December 1862)

Date(s): December 14, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. John G. Foster [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Evans [CS]

Forces Engaged: Department of North Carolina, 1st Division [US]; Evans's Brigade [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 685 total

Description: A Union expedition led by Brig. Gen. John G. Foster left New Berne in December to disrupt the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad at Goldsborough. The advance was stubbornly contested by Evans's Brigade near Kinston Bridge on December 14, but the Confederates were outnumbered and withdrew north of the Neuse River in the direction of Goldsborough. Foster continued his movement the next day, taking the River Road, south of the Neuse River.

Result(s): Union victory


Bentonville

Other Names: Bentonsville

Location: Johnston County

Campaign: Campaign of the Carolinas (February-April 1865)

Date(s): March 19-21, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman and Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Sherman's Right Wing (XX and XIV Corps) [US]; Johnston's Army [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 4,738 total (US 1,646; CS 3,092)

Description: While Slocum's advance was stalled at Averasborough by Hardee's troops, the right wing of Sherman's army under command of Maj. Gen. O.O. Howard marched toward Goldsborough. On March 19, Slocum encountered the entrenched Confederates of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston who had concentrated to meet his advance at Bentonville. Late afternoon, Johnston attacked, crushing the line of the XIV Corps. Only strong counterattacks and desperate fighting south of the Goldsborough Road blunted the Confederate offensive. Elements of the XX Corps were thrown into the action as they arrived on the field. Five Confederate attacks failed to dislodge the Federal defenders and darkness ended the first day's fighting. During the night, Johnston contracted his line into a "V" to protect his flanks with Mill Creek to his rear. On March 20, Slocum was heavily reinforced, but fighting was sporadic. Sherman was inclined to let Johnston retreat. On the 21st, however, Johnston remained in position while he removed his wounded. Skirmishing heated up along the entire front. In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Joseph Mower led his Union division along a narrow trace that carried it across Mill Creek into Johnston's rear. Confederate counterattacks stopped Mower's advance, saving the army's only line of communication and retreat. Mower withdrew, ending fighting for the day. During the night, Johnston retreated across the bridge at Bentonville. Union forces pursued at first light, driving back Wheeler's rearguard and saving the bridge. Federal pursuit was halted at Hannah's Creek after a severe skirmish. Sherman, after regrouping at Goldsborough, pursued Johnston toward Raleigh. On April 18, Johnston signed an armistice with Sherman at the Bennett House, and on April 26, formally surrendered his army.

Result(s): Union victory